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Conclusion & References

From the study of above model example discussed following conclusions can be obtained:

  1. There are good reasons for advocating the use of the inelastic pushover analysis for demand prediction, since in many cases it will provide much more relevant information that an elastic static or even dynamic analysis, but it would be counterproductive to advocate this method as a general solution technique for all cases;

  2. The pushover analysis is a useful, but not in fallible, tool for accessing inelastic strength and deformation demands and for exposing design weaknesses.

  3. Its foremost advantage is that it encourages the design engineer to recognize important seismic response quantities and to use sound judgment concerning the force and deformation demands and capacities that control the seismic response close to failure, but it needs to be recognized that in some cases it may be provide a false feeling of security if its shortcomings and pitfalls are not recognized.

  4. It must be emphasized that the pushover analysis is approximate in nature and is based on static loading. As such it cannot represent dynamic phenomena with a large degree of accuracy. It may not detect some important deformation modes that may occur in a structure subjected to severe earthquakes, and it may exaggerate others. Inelastic dynamic response may differ significantly from predictions based on invariant or adaptive static load patterns, particularly if higher mode effects become important.

  5. Thus performance of pushover analysis primarily depends upon choice of material models included in the study.


  1. Engineering structures journal, Vol. 20,1998 :- Pros and cons of a pushover analysis of seismic performance evaluation by Helmut Krawinkler and G.D.P.K. Seneviratna.

  2. Workshop on Retrofitting of Structures(2003),IIT ROORKEE :- Non-Linear static analysis for seismic evaluation and retrofit of RC buildings by Shailesh Agarwal and Ajay Chourasia.

  3. CSI Reference Manual on SAP 2000 software.

  4. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures By Pankaj Agarwal and Manish Shrikhande.

BACK >> Introduction to Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis


Introduction to Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis

What is Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis?

Purpose of Push-over Analysis

Target Displacement

Non-Linear Static Analysis for Buildings

Case Study of Non-Linear Static Analysis using SAP2000

Limitations of Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis

Conclusion & References