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Purpose of Non-linear Static Push-over Analysis?


The purpose of pushover analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating performance of a structural system by estimating its strength and deformation demands in design earthquakes by means of static inelastic analysis, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The evaluation is based on an assessment of important performance parameters, including global drift, interstory drift, inelastic element deformations (either absolute or normalized with respect to a yield value), deformations between elements, and element connection forces (for elements and connections that cannot sustain inelastic deformations), The inelastic static pushover analysis can be viewed as a method for predicting seismic force and deformation demands, which accounts in an approximate manner for the redistribution of internal forces that no longer can be resisted within the elastic range of structural behavior.

The pushover is expected to provide information on many response characteristics that cannot be obtained from an elastic static or dynamic analysis. The following are the examples of such response characteristics:

• The realistic force demands on potentially brittle elements, such as axial force demands on columns, force demands on brace connections, moment demands on beam to column connections, shear force demands in deep reinforced concrete spandrel beams, shear force demands in unreinforced masonry wall piers, etc.
• Estimates of the deformations demands for elements that have to form inelastically in order to dissipate the energy imparted to the structure.
• Consequences of the strength deterioration of individual elements on behavior of structural system.
• Consequences of the strength detoriation of the individual elements on the behaviour of the structural system.
• Identification of the critical regions in which the deformation demands are expected to be high and that have to become the focus through detailing.
• Identification of the strength discontinuities in plan elevation that will lead to changes in the dynamic characteristics in elastic range.
• Estimates of the interstory drifts that account for strength or stiffness discontinuities and that may be used to control the damages and to evaluate P-Delta effects.
• Verification of the completeness and adequacy of load path, considering all the elements of the structural system, all the connections, the stiff nonstructural elements of significant strength, and the foundation system.


The last item is the most relevant one as the analytical model incorporates all elements, whether structural or non structural, that contribute significantly to the lateral load distribution. Load transfer through across the connections through the ductile elements can be checked with realistic forces; the effects of stiff partial-height infill walls on shear forces in columns can be evaluated; and the maximum overturning moment in walls, which is often limited by the uplift capacity of foundation elements can be estimated.

These benefits come at the cost of the additional analysis effort, associated with incorporating all important elements, modeling their inelastic load-deformation characteristics, and executing incremental inelastic analysis, preferably with three dimensional analytical models.

Target Displacement



Introduction to Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis

What is Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis?

Purpose of Push-over Analysis

Target Displacement

Non-Linear Static Analysis for Buildings

Case Study of Non-Linear Static Analysis using SAP2000

Limitations of Non-Linear Static Push-over Analysis

Conclusion & References